103 – The Instrumental case with masculine singular nouns

In the previous lesson we learned about the Instrumental case and the prepositions used with it. Today let’s learn how to form the Instrumental case. As usual, we are starting from masculine singular nouns.

For masculine nouns ending in …
й -> replace with ем (or ём, if stressed)
ь -> replace with ем (or ём, if stressed)
… unstressed ж, ш, ч, щ, ц -> add ем
… any other case -> add ом

дом – до́мом (house)
за́яц – за́йцем (hare)
нож – ножом́ (knife)
край – кра́ем (edge)
конь – конём (horse)

Practice today’s examples with the audio track.

The Instrumental case memo chart (you can find all the declension rules in the Russian declension chart):

gender ending Instrumental examples
masculine й
ь
unstres. ж, ш, ч, щ, ц
any other case
-й + ем/ём
-ь +ем/ём
+ем
+ом
край – кра́ем
конь – конём
за́яц – за́йцем
дом – до́мом

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