103 – The Instrumental case with masculine singular nouns

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In the previous lesson we learned about the Instrumental case and the prepositions used with it. Today let’s learn how to form the Instrumental case. As usual, we are starting from masculine singular nouns.

For masculine nouns ending in …
й -> replace with ем (or ём, if stressed)
ь -> replace with ем (or ём, if stressed)
… unstressed ж, ш, ч, щ, ц -> add ем
… any other case -> add ом

дом – до́мом (house)
за́яц – за́йцем (hare)
нож – ножом́ (knife)
край – кра́ем (edge)
конь – конём (horse)

Practice today’s examples with the audio track.

The Instrumental case memo chart (you can find all the declension rules in the Russian declension chart):

ending or description how to change examples
masculine
й -й / + ем (ём) край – кра́ем
ь -ь / + ем (ём) конь – конём
unstressed, ж, ш, ч, щ, ц +ем за́яц – за́йцем
all others +ом дом - до́мом
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