030 – Introduction to Russian cases – the Nominative case
Today we start a big and complicated topic of Russian grammatical cases. It might look daunting in the beginning, but don’t worry. We’ll walk you through all of them step by step and help you to master them all. So let’s begin.
Whilst in English the order of the words in a sentence plays a big role, in Russian you can enjoy the freedom of putting the words in any order you like. For example, the phrase ‘mom loves dad’ can be translated in Russian as:
– мама любит папу,
– папу любит мама,
– мама папу любит.
With such approach of structuring the sentences, the only way Russians can understand who loves whom is by looking at the endings of the nouns which change depending on situation.
There are just 6 ways in Russian of how the endings can change. This ways are called cases.
One Russian case – the Nominative – you already know. This is the initial case and the dictionary form of the nouns. It answer the questions ‘who?’ or ‘what?’.
If the noun is the subject of the sentence (the one that acts), it’s always in the Nominative case. In our example above the subject is ‘mom’, so its ending doesn’t change.
Try to identify the nouns in the Nominative in the following examples (you can find the answers in the end in the end of the lesson):
1. Де́вочка покупает я́блоки.
The girl is buying apples.
2. Де́тям роди́тели да́рят пода́рки.
Parents give presents to the kids.
3. Наш зака́з официа́нт запи́сывает карандашо́м в блокно́т.
The waiter writes our order down with a pencil into a notebook.
The audio of this lesson includes all the examples in Russian. Listen to it and practice the pronunciation.