124 – Declension of Russian adjectives: hard-ending adjectives

During the previous lessons we’ve learned six Russian grammatical cases and how to change nouns and pronouns when using them. Today we move on to the Russian adjectives and will have a look at how they are used and changed in different cases.

In the Russian language, there are four types of adjectival declension: hard, soft, and two types of mixed declension. In this lesson we’ll study the declension of hard-ending adjectives.

The hard-ending adjectives are those that end in -ЫЙ (unstressed) or -ОЙ (stressed):

бе́лыйwhite
весёлыйjovial, cheery
голубо́йblue

The adjectival declension with ending -ый:

case masculine feminine neuter plural
Nominative бе́лый бе́лая бе́лое бе́лые
Genitive бе́лого бе́лой бе́лого бе́лых
Dative бе́лому бе́лой бе́лому бе́лым
Accusative
(inanimate)
бе́лый бе́лую бе́лое бе́лые
Accusative
(animate)
бе́лого бе́лую бе́лое бе́лых
Instrumental бе́лым бе́лой / бе́лою бе́лым бе́лыми
Prepositional бе́лом бе́лой бе́лом бе́лых

Pay attention:

– If the adjective modifies an animate masculine or plural noun, it tooks the ending of the Genitive case.

– The ending -ою of feminine adjectives in the Instrumenal is old-fashioned, but sometimes you can come accross it in modern literature.

Now let’s look at the adjectival declension with ending -ой (stressed ending). It looks almost the same as with the ending -ЫЙ.

case masculine feminine neuter plural
Nominative голубой голубая голубое голубые
Genitive голубого голубой голубого голубых
Dative голубому голубой голубому голубым
Accusative
(inanimate)
голубый голубую голубое голубые
Accusative
(animate)
голубого голубую голубое голубых
Instrumental голубым голубой / голубою голубым голубыми
Prepositional голубом голубой голубом голубых

Listen to the audio of today’s lesson and practice all the adjectives with it:

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