019 – Plural in Russian

The audio for the lesson is available at the bottom of the screen under the blue button.

Today we are talking about the Russian plurals. Like in English, to make a plural form from a Russian noun you need to modify its ending. Unlike in English, there are a few possible endings depending on the gender and the ending in singular form. Let’s see how it works:

Apart from some exceptions, all plural Russian nouns take one of four possible endings: -И, -Ы, -А or .

1. For the words ending in К, Г, Х, Ш, Щ, Ж, Ч, Ь or one of these letters + a vowel => drop off the last vowel or and add .


нож – ножи́ (knives)
ключ – ключи́ (keys)
нога́ – но́ги (legs)
рука́ – ру́ки (hands)
ночь – но́чи (nights)

2. For the masculine nouns ending in a consonant => add :

нос – носы́ (noses)
телефо́н – телефо́ны (telephones)
стол – столы́ (tables)

3. For the neuter nouns:
– if the word ends in – replace it with
– if the word ends in -Ш/Щ/Ж/Ч/Ц + Е – replace with ,
– if the word ends in -O – replace it with

зда́ние – зда́ния (buildings)
о́блако – облака́ (clouds)

Russian Pod 101

4. For the feminine nouns:
– replace with
– replace with

голова́ – го́ловы (heads)
стена́ – сте́ны (walls)
ста́нция – ста́нции (station) *
ба́ня – ба́ни (bathhouse) *

* not in the audio

Now you know how to form the Russian plurals. Practice the examples of today’s lesson with the audio track.

You can also test yourself: make the following nouns plural. We’ll publish the correct answers in the next lesson.

пла́тье (dress)

ча́шка (cup)

окно́ (window)

губа́ (lip)

язы́к (language, tongue)

дверь (door)

суп (soup)

8 comments on “019 – Plural in Russian”

  1. Alexander H. Phillips says:

    I think one answer to Nzappazap is that like homonyms the only difference is in the spelling of the words. They both sound the same.

  2. NzappaZap says:

    ‘a’ and ‘o’ usually sound the same with vowel reduction, I thought. Do Russians have to tell the difference through context with some neuter nouns or is there an audible difference?

    1. NzappaZap says:

      I mean when spoken at a native pace.

      1. Learn Russian Step by Step says:

        Hello NzappaZap,

        To tell the truth I do not quite understand what you are asking about.

        In spoken language Russians just pronounce the words as they are used to do. They don’t need to think about what vowel is in the end of the words to change it accordingly.

        Is that what you meant?

        1. NzappaZap says:

          I guess I’m asking if there is an audible difference between зда́ние – зда́ния when spoken at a normal speed or between de’lo and de’la. Unstressed o/a and ye/ya at the end of a word seems very similar.

          1. Learn Russian Step by Step says:

            I see. No, there is no one.

            Although in some regions of Russia people tend to use more А (as in Moscow) while in others – О (Vologda).

  3. Edmund Yong says:

    so what about feminine words end with ‘я’ and ‘b’? remain the same?

    1. Learn Russian Step by Step says:

      For feminine nouns ending in Ь the first rule is used.

      For feminine nouns ending in Я, remove Я, add И.
      Thanks for noticing, the lesson will be completed.

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