094 – Formation of Russian advebs

In the last lesson we got familiar with the Russian adverbs, their function in the sentence and learned some of the Russian adverbs. Today we’ll learn to form the adverbs from other parts of the speech.

In many cases you can form Russian adverbs from adjectives. In other cases adverbs are derived from another parts of speech. Today let’s look at this in more details.

By replacing the endings -ЫЙ/-ИЙ of adjectives with -О/-Е you can get many Russian adverbs:

хоро́ший -> хорошо́ (good)
высо́кий -> высоко́ (high)
шу́мный -> шу́мно (noisy)
горя́чий -> горячо́ (hot)
я́сный -> я́сно (clear)

If the adjective ends in -НИЙ, the -ИЙ must be replaced with .

кра́йний -> кра́йне (extreme, ultimate, last)
сре́дний -> сре́дне (average, middle)

Remember these exceptions:

по́здний -> по́здно (late)
ра́нний -> ра́но (early)

Adjectives ending in -СКАЙ/-ЦКИЙ take the adverbial ending :

ва́рварский – ва́рварски (barbarian, barbarous, uncivilized)

But some adverbs can’t be formed this way (for example, the adverbs of nationality). In these cases Russians use the prefix ПО-:

ру́сский -> по-ру́сски (Russian)
де́тский -> по-де́тски (child)
взро́слый -> по-взро́слому (adult)

Many other adverbs are derived from other parts of speech: from nouns, pronouns, numerals, prepositions + nouns/pronouns.

у́тро (morning) -> у́тром (in the morning)
о́сень (autumn) -> о́сенью (in autumn)
мой (my) -> по-мо́ему (in my opinion)
с + нача́ло (from + beginning) -> снача́ла (at first)
один (one) -> одна́жды (once)

Sometimes from one adjective you can form two adverbs with a slightly different meaning:

хоро́ший – good (adjective)
хорошо́ – well (adverb)
по-хоро́шему – in an amicable / friendly way

у́мный – clever, smart
умно́ – cleverly, wisely
по-у́мному – in an clever way

Listen to the audio and practice all examples of today’s lesson.

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