094 – Formation of Russian advebs

In the last lesson we familiarized ourselves with the Russian adverbs, their function in the sentence, and learned some of the Russian adverbs. Today we’ll learn to form the adverbs from other parts of the speech.

In most cases you can form Russian adverbs from the adjectives. But there are some cases when the adverbs are derived from other parts of speech.

Forming adverbs from adjectives

By replacing the endings -ЫЙ/-ИЙ of adjectives with -О/-Е you can get many Russian adverbs:

хоро́ший -> хорошо́ (good)
высо́кий -> высоко́ (high)
шу́мный -> шу́мно (noisy)
горя́чий -> горячо́ (hot)
я́сный -> я́сно (clear)

If the adjective ends in -НИЙ, the -ИЙ must be replaced with .

кра́йний -> кра́йне (extreme, ultimate, last)
сре́дний -> сре́дне (average, middle)

Remember these exceptions:

по́здний -> по́здно (late)
ра́нний -> ра́но (early)

Adjectives ending in -СКАЙ/-ЦКИЙ take the adverbial ending :

ва́рварский – ва́рварски (barbarian, barbarous, uncivilized)

But some adverbs can’t be formed this way (for example, the adverbs of nationality). In these cases Russians use the prefix ПО-:

ру́сский -> по-ру́сски (Russian)
де́тский -> по-де́тски (child)
взро́слый -> по-взро́слому (adult)

Forming adverbs from other parts of the speech

Russian Pod 101

Many other adverbs are derived from other parts of speech: nouns, pronouns, numerals, prepositions + nouns/pronouns. Examples:

у́тро (morning) -> у́тром (in the morning)
о́сень (autumn) -> о́сенью (in autumn)
мой (my) -> по-мо́ему (in my opinion)
с + нача́ло (from + beginning) -> снача́ла (at first)
один (one) -> одна́жды (once)

Sometimes from one adjective you can form two adverbs with slightly different meanings:

хоро́ший – good (adjective)
хорошо́ – well (adverb)
по-хоро́шему – in an amicable / friendly way (adverb)

у́мный – clever, smart (adjective)
умно́ – cleverly, wisely (adverb)
по-у́мному – in an clever way (adverb)

That’s it for today’s lesson. Listen to the audio and practice all examples of today’s lesson.

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